March 13, 2021

How Healthy Is Your Business Ecosystem?

1. M. Reeves, H. Lotan, J. Legrand, et al., “How Business Ecosystems Rise (and Often…

1. M. Reeves, H. Lotan, J. Legrand, et al., “How Business Ecosystems Rise (and Often Fall),” MIT Sloan Management Review, July 30, 2019,

2. U. Pidun, M. Reeves, and M. Schüssler, “Why Do Most Business Ecosystems Fail?” Boston Consulting Group, June 22, 2020,

3. R. Adner, “The Wide Lens: A New Strategy for Innovation” (New York: Penguin/Portfolio, 2012).

4. B. Popper, “YouTube to the Music Industry: Here’s the Money,” The Verge, July 13, 2016,

5. Y. Kageyama, “Toshiba Quits HD DVD Business,” Los Angeles Times, Feb. 19, 2008.

6. D. Kirkpatrick, “The Facebook Effect: The Inside Story of the Company That Is Connecting the World” (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2010).

7. D.S. Evans and R. Schmalensee, “Matchmakers: The New Economics of Multisided Platforms” (Boston: Harvard Business Review Press, 2016).

8. “Covisint Price Tag: $7 Million,” aftermarketNews, June 10, 2004,

9. J. Phillips, “OpenTable Launches New Campaign to Combat Reservation No-Shows,” San Francisco Chronicle, March 21, 2017,

10. F. Gillette, “The Rise and Inglorious Fall of MySpace,” Bloomberg Businessweek, June 22, 2011,

11. G. Press, “Why Yahoo Lost and Google Won,” Forbes, July 26, 2016,

12. Kirkpatrick, “The Facebook Effect.”

13. A. Yosilewitz, “State of the Stream 2019: Platform Wars, the New King of Streaming, Most Watched Game and More!” StreamElements Blog, Dec. 19, 2019,

14. A. Khalid, “YouTube Is Now the Biggest Threat to Twitch,” Quartz, Jan. 28, 2020,

15. L. Debter, “Etsy’s Push to Compete With Amazon Leaves Sellers Squeezed by Rising Costs,” Forbes, Feb. 27, 2020,

16. K. Cox, “Antitrust 101: Why Everyone Is Probing Amazon, Apple, Facebook, and Google,” Ars Technica, Nov. 5, 2019,

17. T.S. Perry, “Drawing the Line Between ‘Peer-to-Peer’ and ‘Jerk’ Technology,” IEEE Spectrum, July 18, 2014,

18. M. Harris, “The History of Napster: How the Brand Has Changed Over the Years,” Lifewire, Nov. 18, 2019,